Research & Innovation

Why does Funka do research? Few small consultancies devote time to scientific inquiries, and it hardly seems profitable to create new knowledge that’s free for anyone to use. But the answer is simple: We conduct research because it’s necessary.

Cognitive accessibility tested in Norway

Current accessibility standards and legislation tend to focus on technical issues, interoperability of assistive technology and physical impairments. At the same time, many users struggle with understanding the content. That is why more and more research focus on cognitive accessibility.

Award-winning project: payments learning platform

Funded by winning an Innovation competition, our learning platform where users can practice online payments has also been awarded the Zero Award 2023! The prizes are of course very nice, but the most rewarding part for us is the positive feedback we get from users.

Background and main objectives

The main objective of the project is to generate practical guidance for Vocational Education and Training (VET) providers on how to construct courses where lived experiences of persons at risk of exclusion can be transformed into skills that are sought after in the labour market. This is a concept that we refer to as ‘user expertise’.

Automatic captioning project

Captioning should be a natural part of every meeting, webinar, stream and video production. Despite of the legal requirements covering at least parts of the user needs, far too little material is being captioned. By training, facilitation and crowd-development, our captioning project aims to raise awareness and increase the quality of auto-captions in Swedish.

Making digital higher education more accessible

Funka is teaming up with leading European universities in the eTeachers project to develop an online toolkit to support and empower university teachers to create more inclusive educational materials.

Introducing accessibility in digital communication

How can we educate university staff on accessible digital content? How can we promote a more inclusive teaching experience for all? The new ADORE project, funded by the ERASMUS+ programme, will bring accessibility to the forefront of higher education curricula related to communication.

Do you know your rights to accessing information

Take our fun quiz on the Web Accessibility Directive and find out!

Web Accessibility Directive

Funka is celebrating the EU Diversity Month and Global Accessibility Awareness Day (GAAD) 2022.

Users Power the Web Accessibility Directive

Feedback from users with disabilities is key to make websites and apps more accessible. In this project, we are working together with end user organisations across the EU to train and empower users.

Digital communication services for all!

Speech-controlled services and devices – how do they work for people who stutter? On October 22nd, 2021, we celebrated The International Stuttering Awareness Day by organising an online event on digital accessibility for people with speech impairments.

Speech as a digital tool

In a new and exciting project on digital accessibility for people who stutter, the Swedish Stuttering Association and Funka will review, test, and propose solutions for an often forgotten part of accessibility.

Welcome to the Funka – EDF Digital Accessibility Update!

On June 9th, Funka - the Swedish consultant company and a market leader in the field of web accessibility in Europe, is organizing its first international Digital Accessibility Update co-hosted with European Disability Forum, EDF. Come join us to learn about the latest news in the field!

Interactive workshop for public sector web authors

What if authoring tools could provide automatic accessibility by default so that you don’t need to think about it, such as suggesting an ALT-text? What if the tools could support you to easily do the right thing? Wouldn’t that be great?

An interactive workshop for public sector web authors

What if authoring tools could provide automatic accessibility by default so that you don’t need to think about it, such as suggesting an ALT-text? What if the tools could support you to easily do the right thing? Wouldn’t that be great?

Pre-GAAD event - Authoring tools with built-in accessibility!

recording from the event. In this online event, you will meet market leading authoring tool producers and accessibility experts who have joined forces to make sure web authors get better support when creating accessible content. We will demonstrate the exciting results from two EU-funded research projects, where brand new features for "accessibility by default" have been developed.

Authoring tools with built-in accessibility – Pre-GAAD event

Recording from the event. In this online event, you will meet market leading authoring tool producers and accessibility experts who have joined forces to make sure web authors get better support when creating accessible content. We will demonstrate the exciting results from two EU-funded research projects, where brand new features for "accessibility by default" have been developed.

The next generation of accessibility experts?

People with disabilities in Sweden can now apply to become “user experts” in web accessibility. In cooperation with the folk high school Furuboda, and with funding from the innovation agency Vinnova, Funka has developed a ground-breaking training course.

Buddy, the new digital best friend

Together with Johannes Kepler University in Austria, Funka will develop an AI-based recommender for assistive technology focusing on cognitive impairments. The European Commission is funding the research.

Web accessibility in Higher education - webinar

On the 19th of February, IAAP Nordic in cooperation with its project partners: Funka, Mittuniversitetet, Mediauniversity in Stuttgart and University in Genova co-organized a webinar. The event was a part of the IWAC research project.

Project results

The results of the We4Authors FEAT project are regularly published on this page, so that the whole community can benefit from it. When the final templates are ready, they will also be available at EpiServer MarketPlace and GitHub.

Take care of the expertise of the users

An EU-funded research project where Funka focuses on users' experiences of accessibility.

Would you like to try out new accessibility features in Episerver templates?

What if accessibility could work automatically when you publish on the web? Or give you good support so you can publish accessible without being an expert? That would make it a lot easier to live up to the Web Accessibility Directive, right?

Involve the users workshop

On the 27th of January, Funka together with Norwegian and Finnish disability organizations is co-organising an online workshop on user involvement. It is a part of the Involve the users research project and we would like to involve you!

Accessibility in Smart Cities

Smart Cities is a concept that encompasses all types of digitisation and smart technology. But for it to work for everyone, it must not only be smart, but accessible. We contribute to that in a Norwegian research project.

Developing and testing the prototyped templates

In the third phase of the project, we are developing and testing the prototyped templates in an iterative way. User testing with web authors is made to ensure that the templates are user-friendly and actually help authors in creating accessible content. The results from the user tests will feed directly into the development process and as soon as a new version becomes available it will be resubmitted for further user tests.

Prioritisation and selection of templates

To make sure the developed templates meet the needs of web authors and other stakeholders, a set of selection criteria have been chosen. The result is a prioiritised list of templates to prototype and test.

User Requirements

As in all Funka’s work, the views, needs and requirements of the users are important. Surveys, interviews and workshops are used to gather and analyse user needs form different stakeholders.

Remember to follow us on Twitter!

Learn about the latest news about the project and upcoming events via our hashtag #WE4AuthorsFEAT

Accessibility in learning management systems

Education is becoming increasingly digital, which provides great opportunities for better inclusion of people with disabilities. However, if the learning platforms do not meet the requirements for accessibility, students with disabilities risk being excluded. We want to change that in a new research project.

See the webinar from 25 September 2020

Recording from the event: Built-in accessibility in content management systems (the webinar is in Swedish).

See the webinar from 25 September 2020

Recording from the event: Built-in accessibility in content management systems (the webinar is in Swedish)

Learn more about built-in / automatic accessibility

Right now, you have the chance to influence, test and contribute to innovative solutions for the next generation authoring tools! Learn more and be inspired by participating in one of Funka's exciting research projects.

Users become experts in national project

The market is crying out for more web accessibility experts. Can users with disabilities fill the gap? Funka and Furuboda folk high school find out.

Funka educates young people with disabilities

In order for more people to understand what the new legislation on digital accessibility means from a user perspective, Funka offers free education for young people with disabilities. The European Commission is funding the project.

Digital payment services for everyone!

Funka has won an innovation competition with a service that will help more people use online payment services. The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority is funding the project and the Skåne County Administrative Board is our partner.

Understandable text through machine learning

Together with the RISE Research Institutes if Sweden, Funka will investigate whether AI can help web authors create texts that are easier to understand.

Involving users

When people with disabilities contributes to finding new solutions, set requirements and do testing, the end result is better for everyone. In a new research project, Funka will try to contribute to better user involvement.

Research results: guidelines on authoring tools

Until we will can meet again and conduct our popular lectures and conferences presenting the latest research results we have obtained, we would like promote the reports we are continuously publishing. We are happy to share our knowledge.

Built-in accessibility offers support to web authors

By providing authoring tools with built-in accessibility, non-experts can publish in an accessible way. Funka has received funding to develop better templates with built-in accessibility for EpiServer.

Funka influences the authoring tool market

With funding from the European Parliament, we have got the chance to build upon one of our most innovative research projects. This time we will work together with authoring tools producers to make models for accessibility by default.

Chatbots for everyone?

Funka has investigated how chatbots work for people with disabilities. The Norwegian Directorate for Children, Youth and Family Affairs funded the project which is now completed.

Accessibility training for tourism professionals

For everyone, no matter of abilities, to be able to travel and experience things on equal terms, the tourism industry must enhance the accessibility. We are creating a training for managers and frontline staff, funded by the European Commisson.

Inclusive training can overbridge the digital divide

Together with pan-European service providers, universities and networks, Funka will develop training material and manuals to enhance the digital literacy among persons with disabilities and elderly. The research project is funded by the European Commission.

Funka in a large EU-funded project on smart health

Accessibility, user-centered design and standardization are important components that Funka contributes to in the Gatekeeper project. The goal is a healthy and independent life for the elderly with the help of new technology.

From education to inclusion

In a new EU funded project involving Slovak and Czech partners, Funka will contribute to increased accessibility for visually impaired.

A natural part of training for web professionals

In a new and exciting EU-funded research project, Funka is collaborating with leading European universities to ensure the next generation of professionals within web and IT gets to learn web accessibility from the start.

European event on ageing and care in digital transformation in September

Funka is supporting the the Ambient Assisted Living Programme (AAL) to team up with the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) and jointly hold the two initiatives’ annual conferences in September in Aarhus, Denmark.

European regions drive innovation

An opportunity for regional partnerships involving the public sector, industry, academia and civil society to gain recognition for their committment to delivering high-quality services to the ageing population.

Smart Cities, service design and accessibility

Norwegian municipalities working with the Smart Cities concept will get the opportunity to include users in a new way in our latest innovation project around inclusive service design.

Workshops on accessible Content Management Systems

Do you want to impact the accessibility of tomorrow’s content management systems? After summer you have the chance to contribute when we organize workshops in Brussels as part of one of our exciting research projects.

Empathy brings insight

Together with Certec at Lund University of Technology, Funka will produce educational material, Virtual Reality experiences and 360° videos to spread knowledge about people with social, communicative and mental disabilities.

Accessibility in chatbots

More and more organizations use different types of chatbots in their customer dialogue. But do they work for everyone? Funka will find out in a project together with the Norwegian Tax Agency and IAAP Nordic. Do you want to join?

Criteria for cognitive accessibility

Together with the National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools and the Swedish Institute for Standards, Funka will develop testable criteria for cognitive accessibility, with the goal of implementing them in future legislation. After a pre-project, we have been awarded the second step in this exciting project.

Users as experts

More people are needed who give advice and support on accessibility now that demand increases with regulations. People with disabilities are a resource that could be used much better. A new project will try to do just that.

Long-term care users contribute

Funka delivers accessibility expertise to an EU-funded research and innovation project that develops a system for co-creation among individuals, healthcare professionals, researchers and innovators. The goal is that different stakeholders together will develop new solutions for long-term care.

Tools to influence the accessibility issue

Increased independence and more influence for young people with disabilities are two of the goals for an exciting project that Funka participates in starting in February.

Necessary differences and unnecessary problems

We have compared how experts from different countries interpret requirements for accessibility within the framework of an EU-funded project that is now ending. An open learning platform was the result.

Increased knowledge about e-health

The EU funded research project IC-Health is finished. Courses aiming to raise awarenes and competence when it comes to e-health in different target groups have been created together with users.

EU-project to improve digital health solutions

Funka is a proud partner of DigitalHealthEurope, a EU-funded project that will support deployment of digital solutions for person-centred integrated care in Europe.

University training in web accessibility

Funka, IAAP Nordic and four Nordic universities are investigating how web accessibility can be part of the university programs in the Nordic countries.

Innovation project on comprehensible content

Together with Botkyrka Municipality and Linnaeus University, Funka will develop a method for helping the public sector to produce information that is easier to understand. Based on experiences from previous research projects, we test different models to reach persons with a mother tongue other than the official national one, with funding from Vinnova, Sweden’s innovation agency.

Simulations of neurodiversity increase awareness

In a project financed by the Norwegian Directorate for Children, Youth and Family Affairs, Funka will create training material based on user experiences. By simulating how persons with neuropsychiatric conditions experience life, we can raise awareness among our clients and others.

Accessibility as a key element

Accessibility features combined with digital transformation can contribute to improve the quality of life of older people, their inclusion and participation to the society. Funka addresses these issues in the project WE4AHA.

CMS that generate accessibility

Imagine if the tools used to create websites and intranets would have built-in accessibility from the beginning, how much easier life would be! Soon, it can be a reality. Funka has received funding from the European Commission for a project that will contribute to increased accessibility in content management systems.

Virtual Reality for increased knowledge

Hidden disabilities are often more difficult to understand and handle for the outside world, than physical impairments. Funka has received funding from Vinnova, Sweden’s innovation agency, to work on Virtual Reality experiences based on real stories from people with different disabilities. The aim is to develop training material that can contribute to an inclusive working life.

Funka to investigate democracy tools

To strengthen democracy, many municipalities are starrting to use digital tools for citizen dialogue. In order for everyone to participate on the same terms, the tools must of course be inclusive. Funka has been assigned to investigate how tools for citizen dialogue work for persons with disabilities.

Cognitive accessibility of digital interfaces

In a new research project, Funka will develop testable requirements to ensure that digital interfaces are accessible from a cognitive perspective. Today's standards and regulations focus on technical solutions for physical impairments, but many users have completely different types of needs.

Innovative digital solutions

As coordinator for the WE4AHA project, Funka recently participated in and supported the European Commission with the Conference of Partners of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing in Brussels, The conference focused on how to ensure a large-scale deployment of innovative digital solutions, as a key component of the transformation of health and care.

Overcoming digital barriers in employment

Digital barriers in the work environment can be a major obstacle for persons with disabilities to actively participate in modern working life. With funding from Norwegian Directorate for Children, Youth and Family Affairs, Funka has conducted a project in which we point out solutions for accessibility in financial system.

Accessible language learning for immigrants

By winning the Innovation Competition run by the Swedish Post and Telecom Authority, the tech startup Lingio, with help from Funka, will be able to make its language app accessible to persons with disabilities.

Accessible Recruitment

Recruitment processes often use personality tests, but the tests are rarely accessible. WeCompose and Funka have won the Innovation Competition of the Swedish Post and Telecom Authority with a project that aims to change this situation.

Project for a next generation learning platform completed

Funka has contributed with methodology, testing and accessibility audits in the development of the next-generation online learning platform Claned. The EU-funded research project is now finished, and the platform is ready to be launched.

Research on personalized accessibility

A system that adapts to the user instead of the other way around, it sounds almost too good to be true, right? We are starting a research project aimed at developing and testing somthing that could become a ”cognitive screen reader”.

Understandable text and information for all

”Understandable Text and Information for All” is a three-year project aimed at improving access to understandable and accessible social information in Sweden. This autumn Funka, together with partners and user organisations, is conducting user tests focusing on reading comprehension of different types of texts.

Engagement towards Active and Healthy Ageing

Funka's Roberto Zuffada was invited to two events in Italy, presenting the most recent developments of the European Innovation partnership for Active and Healthy Ageing, thus confirming the leadership of Funka in the market of digital innovation for ageing and well-being.

Interpreting the international accessibility guidelines

Now you can interact, discuss and compare web interface assessments in the new tool COMPARE. The goal is for more people to interpret the requirements of the international guidelines WCAG 2.0. in the same way.

Workshop in Genua

As part of the EU-funded research project RISEWISE, Funkas Roberto Zuffada and Susanna Laurin recently participated in an interesting workshop in beautiful Genua with project partners, researchers and students.

An important innovation project on ageing

7-8 September 2017 was the kick-off for the major coordination and support action on ageing related issues, that Funka leads in the framework of EU research programs.

Accessible communication for disabled parents

Funka has developed a prototype for an accessible communication platform serving parents and schools. The project , which has now been completed, was funded by the National Post and Telecom Agency's innovation competition.

Funka leads major EU-project on digital innovation

During the next three and a half years, Funka will manage a project aiming at supporting large scale uptake of digital innovation in active and healthy ageing, funded by the European Commission.

Project for an inclusive labor market

With funding from the Norwegian UNIKT, Funka is looking forward to collect good examples and practices to get persons with disabilities into work. Many studies focus on the problems, but we want to point out what actually works!

Digitalization of audits!

With funding from Sweden's Innovation Agency Vinnova, we are going to develop and test a prototype for digital management of expert-based accessibility audits of web interfaces.

Information that reaches all users

Right now Funka is conducting a follow-up study on how public sector informs people who for various reasons find it difficult to read and understand information. Focus is on including the perspective of persons with another maternal language.

New project about understandable information

Funka is participating in a new exciting project about how persons with different types of cognitive difficulties can get more understandable information. The Swedish Dyslexia Association is leading the project.

Stepwise development towards digital learning

There is much focus on education right now. One of many exciting projects we are involved in is about a digital learning tool that our aim is to make more accessible.

Public services closer to people's everyday lives

Funka is contributing expertise on accessibility and user experience in an ambitious EU-funded research project that has now reached half-time. The goal is for more people to participate actively in the municipality through creative IT solutions.

A Funka’s success story

Coordinated by Funka, the EU funded project PROEIPAHA has concluded its activities. In the last two years, PROEIPAHA has been leading the scaling up of digital innovation across Europe providing tailored support services to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA).

A tool to measure accessibility

One of the winners of the Swedish Post and Telecom Authority’s innovation competition ”Best in business” is Ayond, who will, in cooperation with Funka, develop a tool to measure accessibility – for real.

A step towards a digital school for all

Funka has developed a prototype for a learning platform that is accessible to all regardless of disability. The project was financed by Sweden’s Innovation Agency.

Research project to interpret WCAG

Funka, together with German DIAS and French BrailleNet, will compare and discuss how to interpret WCAG. The goal is to achieve consensus among accessibility experts.

Funka welcomes Italian talent

In the context of the EU project RISEWISE, Funka is receiving Simone Marcutti, a PhD student in the area of User Centred Design.

Digital health literacy in Europe

Funka has joined a new EU project aimed at testing a new model of digital health literacy. The aim is to develop training to enhance EU citizens’ skills on online health information.

Working with dyslexia

The Swedish Association of persons with Dyslexia is leading a project to examine how persons with dyslexia handle their work situation where Funka is participating with accessibility knowledge.

Manual for consultative assemblies

Funka has received funding from the Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation to develop a manual for persons who are active in local and regional consultative assemblies for persons with disabilities in Norway.

Cognitive accessibility research

The important project on cognitive accessibility Funka has participated in is coming to an end. But instead of closing down, the participants have formed a new association, to continue influencing society in a direction towards cognitive accessibility.

Accessibility and tourism

Another project for Funka in Turkey: this time we are going to to develop instructional videos about accessibility and disabilities for the The Turkish Union of Tourist Guides’ Chambers.

EU-project on women with disabilities

Funka is partner of a recently approved EU funded project addressing barriers hampering women with disabilities to fully engage themselves in cultural and socio-economic environments.

On going user testing in our innovation project

Flexibility and individual settings are in focus when Funka develops a new accessible tool for data collection. This is a partial report from one of our innovation projects.

Research project: WeGovNow

Together with Empirica as project leaders and other partners, Funka participates in a EU-funded research project aiming to develop a new, interactive platform for e-participation.

Project on learning platform

With support from the innovation programme Eurostars, Funka will support Claned Group and Laurea University in Finland to further develop the digital learning platform CLANED and to improve the accessibility of the solution.

Funka evaluates digital learning management systems

Digital learning management systems, LMS, have become an important tool in teaching at all levels. But for all pupils and students to be able to use them, they must be accessible.

Cognitive accessibility: an evaluation of knowledge

In cooperation with the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and the Dyslexia Association in Sweden, Funka’s industrial PhD student Stefan Johansson has participated in a survey on the documented knowledge in the field of cognitive accessibility.

Funka dispels the myths!

With funding from the Jimmy Dahlsten foundation, Funka is privileged to run a project to inspire creative solutions in order to reach higher accessibility.

Funka for parents

Funka is one of the winners of the The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority’s innovation competition “Simplify for parents”. We will develop a platform for communication between parents, teachers and pupils that works for everyone.

Inclusive tool for data collection

Questionnaires and surveys often work poorly for persons with different disabilities. That is one of the reasons that these users are not visible in statistics. Funka, The Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, and the Dyslexia Association in Sweden have now been granted innovation support from Vinnova, Sweden’s innovation agency, to develop a tool that works for all.

Adobe Reader and assistive technology products – a study in compatibility

Adobe has assigned Funka to perform a study on how pdf-files work with different assistive technology. Through user tests and expert evaluations, we’ve found that the pdf- format in itself isn’t an issue, but the problems lie in the lack of knowledge of those who create the files.

Accessibility with the Adobe LiveCycle Designer

On behalf of Adobe, Funka has conducted tests on how the Adobe LiveCycle Designer works from an accessibility point of view to create e-services. Solutions created with the LiveCycle Designer can be made more accessible for users than files created with Adobe Acrobat. The advantage in using the LiveCycle Designer is that you can achieve more, for instance in the field of dynamic forms.

Research on navigation

The AAL-funded NavMem project has ended successfully. Funka has participated in the final phases and contributed to business modelling and accessibility requirements.

Smarter meetings

Funka, the Royal Technical University of Stockholm and several end user organisations are going to test methods for effective meetings for persons with cognitive and mental disabilities.

Web app for inventory

With funding from the EU within the framework of CreatiFi Accelerators, Funka will develop a prototype for a web app for self-inventory for accessibility in the built environment.

Active and healthy ageing

Funka has been awarded by the European Commission to lead and coordinate the support of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, EIPAHA, during 2015 and 2016. The project is funded by the framework programme Horizon 2020.

A digital school for all

Initiated by Funka and with funding from Sweden’s Innovation Agency, VINNOVA, Funka has launched a new exciting innovation project within the school area. The project is about improving the conditions for students, teachers and parents with disabilities.

The collective housing of the future

Together with Gisselberg Architects, Funka is developing the housing of a new generation. The Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning is financing the project with the aim of creating accessible, attractive and economic living environment for the young.

Mobile Navigation Guidelines

In cooperation with 20 of our customers, Funka led a crowdsourcing project on navigation concepts in mobile interfaces. After having reviewed and tested existing navigation concepts, we developed and tested new prototypes. The work resulted in guidelines on mobile navigation, free to use by everyone.

Accessibility for people with mental disorders

As part of our efforts to raise awareness about accessibility for people with mental disorders Funka has conducted a pilot study with the Royal Institute of Technology and the National Association for Social and Mental Health, RSMH, in Sweden. The project has examined how people with mental disorders use electronic communication.

European research project on Down syndrome

Together with the Norwegian research organisation Karde as Project Manager and financed by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme, Funka participates in a research project on how people with Down syndrome can be better integrated in society. Stefan Johansson from Funka is one of the experts in the research team.

Research on cognitive accessibility

Funka will examine how we can create accessibility for people with cognitive impairments, how to make individuals with cognitive impairments participate in development and how to implement their requirements in standardisation and rules. The project is made together with disability organisations in Sweden and funded by the Swedish Inheritance Found Commission and the Swedish Consumer Agency.

Tablets in schools – do they work for everyone?

On behalf of the Norwegian Associaton of the Blind and Partially Sighted, Funka has investigated the use of tablets in schools. How do the platforms comply with accessibility requirements? Which built in assistive technology is best from a user experience perspective? Which of the relevant applications are working well for what target groups?

Friends – A Project about Social Media

Financed by the Norwegian research institution IT-funk Funka performed a research project in collaboration with the Norwegian research company Karde on how young people with Asperger’s syndrome use social media. Using surveys and statistics, we were able to come up with a result that will hopefully lay the ground for further research on the subject.

Mobile guidelines

Financed by the Swedish Internet Fund, Funka has analysed mobile interfaces and made user tests, made prototypes with improvements and tested again. The work resulted in guidelines for accessible mobile interfaces that are free for everyone to use - comments and feed back are most welcome!

Google Translate

In collaboration with the Language Council of Sweden and financed by the Swedish Internet Fund .SE Funka has examined what happens when municipalities and Government Agencies choose to integrate Google Translate into their websites.

Automatic translations

Financed by the Internet Foundation, Swedish Language Institute and local governments with special requirements for minority language, Funka has been leading a study researching the use of automatic translations on the web, making user tests and technical research on how automatic translation services cope with small languages like Swedish.

Understandable information

Financed by the Swedish Inheritance Found Commission, Funka has been leading a research project on human perception and understanding content, studying how different end user groups prefer and best understand content on the web. We have developed a testing interface where end users can interact with content, thereby pointing out difficulties and answering questions so we objectively can measure whether they do understand the content or not.